Friday, 16 December 2022

What is English Literature at its Very Core?

 English Literature refers to the study of texts from around the world, written in the English language. By studying a degree in English Literature, you will learn how to analyze a multitude of texts and write clearly using several different styles. Generally, literature refers to different types  of text including novels, non-fiction, poetry, and plays, among other forms. However, literature is a contested term, as new mediums for communication provide different types of contemporary literature. 

Literature is generally defined as writing with artistic merit. However, other types of text such as screenplays, nonfiction, song lyrics, and online means, could now be considered literature under the contemporary understanding of the term. The English Literature programs in most major US institutions will largely study the traditional literary texts. An English Literature major will likely examine texts including poetry, drama, and prose fiction, perhaps briefly covering more contested forms of literature in their chosen path. 

The Old English Period


The Angles, Saxons, and Jutes who invaded Britain in the 5th and 6th centuries brought with them the common Germanic metre; but of their earliest oral poetry, probably used for panegyric, magic and short narrative, little or none survives. For nearly a century after the conversion of King Aethelberht I of Kent to Christianity about 600, there is no evidence that the English wrote poetry in their own language. But St. Bede the Venerable, in his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum, wrote that in the late 7th century Caedmon, an illiterature Northumbrian cowherd, was inspired in a dream to compose a short hymn in praise of the creation. Caedmon later composed verses based on Scripture, which was expounded for him by monks at Streaneshalch, but only the ''Hymn of Creation'''survives. Caedmon legitimized the native verse form by adapting it to Christain themes. Others, following his examples, gave England a body of vernacular poetry unparalleled in Europe before the end of the 1st millennium. 

English Literature

 English literature, the body of written works produced in the English language by inhabitants of the British Isles (including Ireland) from the 7th century to the present day. The major literatures written in English outside the British Isles are treated separately under American literature, Australian literature, Canadian literature, and New Zealand literature, English literature has sometimes been stigmatized as insular. It can be argued that no single English novel attains the universality of the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace or the French writer Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary. Yet in the Middle Ages the Old English literature of the subjugated Saxons was leavened by the Latin and Anglo-Norman writings, eminently foreign in origin, in which the churchmen and the Norman conquerors expressed themselves. From this  combination merged a flexible and subtle linguistic instrument exploited by Geoffrey Chaucer and brought to supreme application by William Shakespeare. During the Renaissance the renewed interest in Classical learning and values had an important effect on English literature, as on all the arts; and ideas of Augustain literary propriety in the 18th century and reverence in the 19th century for a less specific, though still selectively viewed, Classical antiquity continued to shape the literature. All three of these impulses derived from a foreign source, namely the Mediterranean basin. 

Further, British's past imperial activities around the global continued to inspire literature-in some cases wistful, in other cases hostile. Finally, English literature has enjoyed a certain diffusion abroad, not only in predominantly English-speaking countries but also in all those others where English is the first choice of study as a second language. 

Even within England, culturally and historically the dominant partner in the union of territories comprising Britain, literature has been as enriched by strongly provincial writers as by metropolitan ones. Another contrast more fruitful than not for English letters has been that between social milieus, however much observers of Britain in their own writings may have deplored the survival of class distinctions. As far back as medieval times, a courtly tradition in literature cross-fertilized with an earthier demotic one. Shakespeare's frequent juxtaposition of royalty in one scene with plebeians in the next reflects a very British way of looking at society. This awareness of differences between high life and low, a state of affairs fertile in creative tensions, is observable throughout the history of English literature. 

Sunday, 4 December 2022

Dental Council of India (DCI)

 About Dental Council of India (DCI) 

The Dental Council of India (DCI) established by the Government of India in 1949 is a statutory body of the government. 

It has 6 constituencies such as the Central Government, the State Government, the Universities, the Dental Colleges, the Medical Colleges, the Medical Council of India and the Private Practitioners of Dentistry.

The Dental Council of India receives its funds from Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. The council also receives nearly 25% share of fees collected by state dental councils every year from different resources under section 53 of the Dentist Act.

The council also receives some funds from other resources under section 10 A of the Dentists Act, 1948, as amended by the Dentists Amendment Act, 1993. 

The main objectives of the Dental Council of India (DCI) are given as below.

Maintenance of uniform standards of Dental Education – both at Undergraduate and Postgraduate levels. (a) It envisages inspections/visitations of Dental Colleges for permission to start Dental colleges, increase of seats, starting of new P.G. courses (as per provisions of section 10A of the Act). 

To prescribe the standard curricula for the training of dentists, dental hygienists, dental mechanics and the conditions for such training. 

To prescribe the standards of examinations and other requirements to be satisfied to secure for qualifications recognition under the Act. 

Council of Architecture (COA)

 About Council of Architecture (COA) 

The Council of Architecture established under the provisions of Architects Act, 1972 regulates the education and the practice of profession of Architects throughout India besides maintaining the register of Architecture (COA) entitles the person to practice the profession of architecture.

Any person willing to make ‘Architecture’ his / her profession must register with Council of Architecture (COA). He / she must possess the requisite qualification as appended to the Architects Act and the registration with Council of Architecture (COA) entitles the person to practice the profession of architecture.

The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects, of which all partners are registered with COA. Limited Companies, Private/Public Companies, societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture.

The institutes which provide architectural education are more than 108 in number in the country. The Council of Architecture governs the standards of education being imparted in these institutions including the requirement of eligibility for admission, the course duration, the standards of staff & the accommodation, the course content, the examination etc. 

It also has a close vigil on these institutions / departments providing architectural education and reports to the Government of India. 


Commission of Scientific & Technical Terminology (CSTT)

 About Commission of Scientific & Technical Terminology (CSTT) 

The Commission of Scientific & Technical Terminology strives towards developing a uniform technology for Hindi and other modern Indian languages.

It develops the language technology for books and periodicals at all the educational levels. The functions of the Commission of Scientific and Technical Terminology are as follows.


  • Evolution of scientific and technical terminology in Hindi and other Indian languages. 
  • Identification of Pan-Indian terminology and its propagation for promoting maximum use by all Indian languages. 
  • Development of a Computer based National Terminology Bank.
  • Information and Consultancy Services in the field of terminologies. 
  • Usage survey and standardization of terminology. 

Scientific And Technical Literature

  • Production and publication of university-level books on various subjects in Hindi and other Indian langauges. 
  • Co-ordination and monitoring of the book production activities of Hindi Granth Academies and State Text-book Boards. 
  • Production of definitional dictionaries in various subjects. 
  • Publication of readings, monographs, digests, etc. on scientific and technical subjects for use by students as supplementary reading material. 
  • Publications of Journals, viz., 'Vigyan Garima Sindhu' and ' Gyan Garima Sindhu.


  • Compilation of common medical terms and phrases in Indian languages. 
  • Organization of exhibitions of university-level books. 
  • Publicity and sale of the publication of the CSTT and Granth Academies. 

Some of the achievements of CSTT are as follows.

  • Definitional Dictionaries 
  • Fundamental Glossaries 
  • Departmental Glossaries 
  • Pan – India Terminology 
  • Production of University — Level Books 
  • Readings, digests and Monographs 
  • Compilation of Common Medical terms and Phrases 
  • Scholarly Journals - "Vigyan Garima Sindhi" 
  • Computer-based national terminology Bank

Tuesday, 22 November 2022

International Training Program (ITP)

 International Training Program (ITP)

About International Training Program (ITP)

International Training Program (ITP) 

The purpose of this program is to help a person develop speaking, reading, writing and listening skills in English language. 

GOI Schemes 

There are schemes of Government of India such as ELTI support scheme and DC scheme which are supported by CIEFL. The CIEFL offers 3 month program under ELTI scheme and 10 day intensive teacher training program under DC scheme. 

Programs offered by CIEFL Hyderabad 

School of Critical Humanities 

M.A. Programme in English Literature 

M.A. Programme in Literary and Cultural Studies (LCS) 

M.Phil. Programme in English Literature 

Ph.D. Programme in English Literature 

Diploma in Translation 

Advanced Diploma in Professional Translation 

Post-Graduate Diploma in Translation Studies (PGDTS 

School of Distance Education 

M.Phil in English 

Ph.D. in English 

Post Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of English (PGCTE) 

Post Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of English (PGDTE) 

School of English Language Education 

M.A. English (TESL) 

M.A. English (Media and Communication) 

M.A. Media and Communication 



Ph.D. (Part Time) 



School of Foreign Languages 

Part-Time Language Proficiency Programme in Arabic 

Part-Time Diploma in Translation (Arabic/English, English/Arabic) 

M.A. in Arabic (Distance Mode) 

M.A. in Arabic (Full Time)

Post-Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of Arabic (PGDTA) 

M.Phil. in Arabic 

Ph.D. in Arabic 

Part-time Proficiency Programmes - Certificate of Proficiency,  Diploma & Advanced Diploma. 

M.A. in French (Distance Mode) 

M.A. in French (Full Time) 

Post Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of French (PGCTF) 

Post Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of French (PGDTF) 



e-Master in French (online, MA plus MPhil)

Part-Time Language Proficiency Programmes in German 

Part-Time Diploma in Translation 

Diploma in Interpretation 

M.A. in German (Distance Mode) 

M.A. in German (Full time)

Post-Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of German (PGCTG) 

Post-Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of German (PGDTG) 

M.Phil. in German 

Ph.D. in German 

Part-Time Language Proficiency Programmes in Spanish 

Ph.D. in Spanish 

Levels 1.1 to 1.6 (Part -Time) 

Diploma in Scientific and Technical Translation in Russian (Part- Time) 

Master of Arts (M.A.) in Russian 

Post-Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of Russian (PGCTR) 

Post-Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of Russian (PGDTR) 

Master of Philosophy (M.Phil.) in Russian (Distance Mode) 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Russian (Distance Mode) 

Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Russian 

School of Language Sciences 

M.A. English (Linguistics) 

M.A. Linguistics 

M.Phil. English (Linguistics and Phonetics)/MPhil Linguistics/MPhil Phonetics/MPhil Applied Linguistics 

Ph.D. English (Linguistics and Phonetics/PhD Applied Linguistics 

Post Graduate Certificate in the Teaching of English  

M. Phil 

e-Master in French (online MA plus MPhil) 

Programs offered by CIEFL Lucknow 

Post-Graduate Diploma in the Teaching of English 

M.Phil. In English( Linguistics & Phonetics) 

Certificate Of Proficiency in French 

Certificate Of Proficiency In German 

M.A. English

Central Institute of Indian Languages (CIIL) 

The Central Institute of Indian Languages was set up in 1969 with the purpose of establishing and synchronizing the advancement in Indian Languages. It also maintains the unity of Indian languages through scientific studies and contributes towards mutual enrichment of languages. There are seven regional centers of CIIL operating in different linguistic zones of the country and these centers strive to meet the demand for trained teachers, implement the three-language formula and provide guarantee to linguistic minorities. The Central Institute of Indian Languages under its Modern Indian Languages Scheme offers awards, fellowships, scholarships and Faculty Improvement Program (FIP). Its main objectives are as follows.

It gives advices and assistants to the Central Government of India and different States’ Governments of India in the issues related to languages. 

It helps in content creation in different Indian languages. 

It protects and documents in Minor, Minority and Tribal languages.

It teaches 15 Indian languages to non native learners. 

The functions of Central Institute of Indian Languages are as follows. 

Language Teaching 

Materials Production 

Language Analysis 


Consultancy Publication 

Inter-disciplinary Research 

Coordinating the Activities of Language Development 

Advise the Central and State Governments on matters related to Language 

Technology Development for Indian Languages 

Research and Development of Tribal Languages 

The functionalities of the Central Institute of Indian Languages include the following 

Project Programmes 

Ten Month Intensive Courses 

Orientation & Refresher Courses 

Training Programs 

Grant in Aid (GIA) 

Contact Cum Correspondence Courses 

Composite Correspondence Course in Kannada(CCCK) 

On-Line Teaching 

India Studies Programme 

CIIL Centers 

Centre for Creative Writing and Lexicography 

Centre for Excellence in Classical Tamil Languages 

Centre for Language & Educational Technology 

Centre for Language Information 

Centre for Language Planning 

Centre for LanguageSurveys &RLC's 

Centre for Materials Production 

Centre for Testing and Evaluation 

Centre for Translation Studies 

Centre for Tribal and Endangered Languages   

What is English Literature at its Very Core?

 English Literature refers to the study of texts from around the world, written in the English language. By studying a degree in English Lit...